OrthoPets Case Study: Bailey
Bailey is a 6-year-old MC Labrador that is currently a patient of one of our Partner Clinics in San Francisco. Dr. Illana Strubel, owner of A Well Adjusted Pet, has come to OrthoPets and studied the use of our orthotic and prosthetic devices to use with her patients.
Bailey presented in September 2016 with a history of toe touching weight-bearing and non-weight bearing lameness intermittently over the previous 4 months. The radiographs showed inflammation and DJD changes in the left stifle with mild changes in the right stifle as well. He had a medial buttress palpable bilaterally with minimal to no cranial drawer or tibial thrust palpable on awake evaluation. He did show adequate range of motion, was able to sit and lie squarely. His measurements showed a 1-2 cm muscle mass discrepancy between the left and right thighs on girth measurements. The radiographic and physical exam conclusion was that they suspected a chronic partial to complete cranial cruciate ligament tear, +/- meniscal injury, with secondary degenerative change and crus muscle disuse atrophy for the left stifle. The conclusion for the right stifle was suspicion for equivocal increase of right stifle joint fluid volume with minimal tibial osteophyte; concern for possible early/mild partial cranial cruciate ligament tear and +/- meniscal injury.
The owners’ goal was to avoid surgery on the left pelvic limb and increase Bailey’s comfort. Due to his discomfort, they had to decrease his walks, which led to a 10-pound weight gain. When OrthoPets received Bailey’s measurements, fiberglass impression and media, we were able to analyze his gait to determine the most appropriate orthotic design for him. In some cases, when a pet has non-prominent malleoli or an extended terminal stance tarsal angle, a tarsal cuff component is required for suspension of the orthosis because standard use of the tarsal anatomy will not be sufficient.
Bailey was fit with his stifle orthosis and has been doing very well. He is continuing his rehabilitation with Dr. Strubel. She reports that he is building back muscle mass and has been able to go on walks with the dog walker to get his weight back on track. His owners are very pleased with his progress, and best of all Bailey is happy!
OrthoPets Case Study: Alley
In October 2014, Alley was diagnosed with a grade II medially luxating patella and suspected cranial cruciate disease. Since the cranial cruciate ligament also controls internal rotation of the stifle, CCLD can result in MPL by allowing excessive internal rotation and cranial displacement of the tibia. Both of these contribute to the patella luxating medially. Alley was partial non-weight bearing for almost two weeks and unfortunately was also diagnosed with concurrent transitional cell carcinoma in her bladder. She had been a very active dog until then, however, due to the co-morbidities, surgery was not an option for the owner. They were looking for a palliative solution to keep Alley comfortable until her quality of life was no longer acceptable.
While the orthosis is able to provide global support to the stifle, we generally only recommend orthoses for the treatment of low grade (I-II) patellar luxations. With the addition of a tarsal cuff, we are able control rotation of the affected leg which may assist with controlling the luxation (by providing resistance to internal rotation that is usually controlled by the cranial cruciate ligament). However, with grade III-IV luxation and in dogs without cruciate disease, the orthosis cannot provide enough external rotation of the tibia to allow for appropriate tracking of the patella.
In March 2016, Alley suffered a similar problem on her contralateral leg. Since Alley had done well with the original stifle orthosis, the owners decided to pursue it again. Alley received a stifle orthosis with a tarsal cuff for her contralateral leg. She has been doing well with her new orthosis and has been able to return to her normal activities again.
OrthoPets Case Study: Finley
Finley is a 5-year-old Golden Retriever who received a custom tarsus paw orthosis from OrthoPets in February 2016.
Finley was hit by a car in 2015 and suffered massive tissue loss. After several unsuccessful attempts to accomplish bone union, Finley was diagnosed with a malunion of all metatarsals. At this point further options (including bone morphogenetic proteins and other reconstructive procedures) were considered, however the owners did not want to pursue further surgical options.
Orthoses as a treatment for non-unions are challenging since an orthosis cannot completely prevent the patient from loading through the fractures while vertical forces are applied. Furthermore, due to the instability in the lower limb due to the fractures, the device has to be worn 24/7. This can be associated with soft tissue complications including sores and dermatologic issues. In Finley’s case, the veterinarian discussed these concerns with the owner, but since Finley seemed very comfortable when walking around in a splint it was decided to pursue treatment with an orthotic device.
An impression of Finley’s limb was made as well as required length measurements for fabrication. A non-articulating tarsus/paw orthosis with the addition of a “clamshell” piece along the cranial aspect was designed to control the applied forces. A removable foam liner was fabricated to increase intimacy to the limb for additional support. The paw shell design featured a rockered bottom to ease her gait and help with propulsion.
Finley was fitted with her device in March 2016 and the owner reported immediately that Finley was very comfortable in the device! In fact, the owners felt that she was moving better than she did for a long time and she even started running on one of their walks! Finley is still using her device full-time so that she has the support she needs when she is allowed out in the yard for exercise and in the house even if she is lounging around. It is very important that Finley gets several air breaks throughout the day when resting. This device will continue to be something that she uses for life. Every 12-24 months, we will need to assess the foam liner to see if it needs to be replaced as it will become compressed over time. The tread on her device will be replaced as well as it wears down, similar to needing new shoes. When you receive an orthosis from OrthoPets, you not only receive a custom-made device, but you receive our services for the life of your or your client’s pet!
OrthoPets Case Study: Elliot
Elliot, a 7.5 year old, neutered male, Bearded Collie, was presented to OrthoPets for fabrication of a custom orthosis to support a post-operative patellar tendon repair of the right hind limb. This patient was casted post-op to provide temporary stabilization. The goals for the orthosis were to rigidly stabilize the stifle in extension with the ability to allow motion over time for physical therapy and to encourage tendon healing while preserving the repair. The use of an orthosis was desired to facilitate daily range of motion exercises with the ability to immobilize the joint without having to re-cast on a daily basis.
An orthosis to support a patellar tendon repair is a complex design requiring additional componentry for stabilization, force distribution, suspension and eventual
dynamization. Device suspension is often challenging due to the limb being held in extension. The device design for this case included a cranial femoral shell segment, a cranial tibia and fibula shell segment and a caudal tarsus and paw segment. The stifle and tarsus joints are immobilized with metal bar stock. Dacron range of motion control straps were provided to the veterinarian in charge for the purpose of dynamization within the device system at a later time point. This componentry allows for both immobilization and restriction of joint range of motion at the stifle and tarsus. In addition, a neoprene tibial suspension sleeve was created for this patient, allowing for the recruitment of the calcaneus as an additional suspension location. The paw shell is an integral component as it resists gravitational forces to help unload the patellar tendon as well as assists in device suspension.
When a patient is taken out of a cast and introduced to an orthosis, swelling and skin
irritations are not uncommon. Bandages cause compression of soft tissues and
can restrict blood and lymphatic flow. When the bandages are removed, the changes in blood and lymphatic flow in combination with gravity can result in swelling and limb edema. This in combination with the requirement to wear the device 24/7 creates challenges that require dedicated owners. This patient initially required frequent air breaks from the orthosis, soft tissue massage and other rehabilitation techniques to resolve the edema of the distal limb segment. Of course the owners need to be aware that no weight-bearing can occur during these air breaks. Telfa pads were also initially recommended to cover and protect skin irritations on this patient.
The patient’s physical rehabilitation regimen was continued and the patient was allowed gradual dynamization of the stifle and tarsus. With time, the device was transitioned into a sports brace configuration for long term use via removal of the paw segment, custom modifications to the strapping and the addition of foam and friction reducing materials to maintain device integrity and increase patient comfort and functionality.
OrthoPets Case Study: Casey
Casey is an English Pointer who is her owner’s hunting companion. A few months ago, Casey returned from the field lame in the hind end, so her owner thought it would be best to take her to the veterinarian. On gait evaluation, Casey showed a mild lameness worse in the left hind limb. While there was no evidence of increased tarsal flexion (“dropped hock” or “crab-claw” appearance), palpation of the common calcanean tendons revealed thickening bilaterally especially at the insertion of the calcaneus. Radiographs showed areas of dystrophic calcification at the insertion of the tendon. The rest of the exam was within normal limits. Casey was diagnosed with bilateral (Type 3, which is a tendinosis only with no increased hock flexion) Achilles tendonopathy, with the left being more symptomatic that the right. While Type 3 injuries can progress to more severe injuries (frequently Type 2c), surgery is generally not recommended for these injuries since the tendon is intact. Casey was placed on restricted activity and referred to a rehabilitation therapist to discuss options for this patient, specifically custom orthotic devices to reduce the stress on the Achilles tendons while they heal.
The OrthoPets tarsal orthosis creates an external moment to stabilize the tarsus when the soft tissues are not capable of stabilizing it. For cases like Casey, the first stage is generally a tarsus paw configuration with a locked-out motion limiter. This device does all the work for the Achilles mechanism allowing the early healing stages to proceed by removing tension on the impaired tendon. By doing so, the device provides an optimal environment to allow the body to heal.
Casey’s owners opted to move forward with bilateral tarsal orthotics in the hopes that the tendons will heal on their own, so that she can get back to hunting activities. Casey received bilateral articulating tarsal devices with articulating paw segments. Initially, Casey was placed in 165 degrees of tarsal extension with very limited movement allowed. As the tendon heals, Casey will gradually be allowed increased range of motion at the tarsus in increments of 10 degrees. If Casey shows signs of a full recovery, the goal is to remove the paw segment and to use the devices at times of high activity (such as hunting) to prevent further injury to her Achilles complex.
When dogs are able to demonstrate a standing tarsal angle when challenged (i.e. holding up the contralateral limb) of >135 degrees, they generally are able to transition into a sports brace. The sports brace conversion consists of grinding down the distal metatarsal shell removing the hinge attachment for the paw segment and adding a foam edge band to aid in device suspension. If this option is chosen, we will also replace the metal motion limiting component with a Dacron motion limiting strap allowing flexion to 120 degrees. Please note that due to these changes, this conversion is irreversible and therefore has to be considered carefully (if recurrence is observed a new device has to be manufactured).
OrthoPets Case Study: Fynn
Just a quick note to tell you what a huge fan of OrthoPets I am!! When we first got the carpus brace for Keeper, we needed it right away following an unexpected follow-up surgery. LiLen worked with me to get it delivered super fast. The product is excellent, keeps the joint completely stable, is easy to put on and take off, fits perfectly (after one year of hard wear, not a single sore), is easy to retread, and is also factory reburbishable. I only wish we’d had it since the very beginning on the injury. Maybe if we had, he wouldn’t need to wear it the rest of his life. As it is, I’m incredibly grateful for this high-quality solution, as it allows Keeper to remain a four-legged dog. He’s found many ways to use it beyond its original purpose (e.g. door knocker). Kudos to LiLen and OrthoPets for an outstanding product and excellent customer service!
Thank you! Maria and Keeper
Meet Colville (aka CJ), a 2 year old rescued Pittie mix currently cared for by foster mom Jennifer of Black Dog Second Chance Rescue in New York. Colville was born with agenesis of his distal right forelimb, meaning that his toes and paw never fully formed. Colville previously had a prosthetic limb from another manufacturer, but he received that prosthetic early in life and eventually outgrew it. When it became obvious from the way he was using it that his old device was too small and he would need a new prosthetic, Black Dog and Jennifer reached out to OrthoPets to make Colville’s next leg for him.
FORT COLLINS, CO — The James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital at CSU gave a 3-year-old miniature horse a new lease on life by using a 3-D printer and prosthetics to replace a missing hoof.
Shine was injured after a vicious dog attack left his left hind leg mangled and infected. Veterinarians at the hospital had to amputate the leg in order for Shine to survive.
According to Colorado State University, owners Jacque Corsentino and Lee Vigil told veterinarians to “do whatever it takes” to give the horse another chance at a normal life.
And thanks to Shine’s size — he’s 30 inches tall and 150 pounds — he was a good candidate for a prosthetic hoof.
It’s an uncommon approach, said Laurie Goodrich, associate professor of equine orthopedics at CSU.
Goodrich used measurements, Shine’s radiographs and a 3-D printer to build a replica of the horse’s hoof to help him stay balanced while he healed.
“It’s the first one I’ve done, but I’ve always wanted to try,” she said. “We had no way of preserving that limb … this was the only option to preserve his life.”
Shine was fitted with an artificial hoof from OrthoPets and now he is adjusting confidently to trotting. He is preparing to leave the teaching hospital and return home to his ranch in Florence, Colorado, later this week.
“He is so comforting. You know when you have horrible days? Shine is my therapy,” Corsentino said. “I think he would make an amazing therapy horse for wounded warriors or kids with disabilities.”
Colorado State University contributed to this report.
This story about CSU/OrthoPets patient Shine first appeared at LIKE Human: http://usat.ly/1Swkw6g
Meet Thebault, a nine year old Sheltie who has suffered from intermittent left front limb lameness since he was a puppy. As he got older, he started to struggle with routine things like walks, stairs, slippery surfaces and even standing up from a sitting position. He was diagnosed with carpal hyperextension and DJD (degenerative joint disease), with a possible but unconfirmed diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Thebault’s owners initially went through our partner clinic, Pawsitive Steps Rehabilitation & Therapy, located in Rochester Hills, Michigan, outside of Detroit. Dr. Kern has trained extensively with OrthoPets in our process and works on a number of cases with us regularly in addition to being certified in canine rehabilitation and other pain management modalities. In Thebault’s case, she was able to help him acclimate to his device and, in conjunction with rehab techniques, learn to use it appropriately and comfortably in preparation for a big family move to Alaska.
Dr. Kern and Silver, Thebault’s OrthoPets Case Manager, selected an articulating carpus, articulating paw, “Carter”-style device design for Thebault. This device has a cranial (front) shell, as opposed to our non-articulating and fully caudal (back) shell device. Thebault didn’t need his device to act as a non-surgical arthrodesis and completely stop all motion the way a non-articulating device would. He just needed help to control some of the movement and laxity in his limb that was making him uncomfortable.
Thebault received his device in early April 2016, and in spite of some shyness at his fitting appointment and even acting at first like the device was chasing him, he took to his orthosis (dog brace) very quickly. Because of the laxity of his digits, Thebault initially tended to supinate in the paw segment of his device which caused some irritation to his lateral 5th digit. This eventually necessitated the device coming back to OrthoPets to have the paw segment heat flared slightly to accommodate this tendency without encouraging it too much. His owners found that he tended to lick that area when his device was removed even after the adjustment, but were able to prevent him licking and further irritating it by putting a baby sock on the foot both to protect it and to distract him from licking as soon as the device came off.
Thebault and his family moved to Alaska in May and by the time they made the move, Thebault was so happy in his device that he actually raises his paw to have it put on. Because of his history and age, Thebault will likely require another orthotic device for his right front limb eventually, but for now he’s doing great with one device and is able to run and play and enjoy walks with his family again!